Panel A says a finite-cubic-spline area of your own connection ranging from estimated twenty-four-hours urinary potassium removal as well as the substance away from dying away from people lead to and major cardio occurrences. Brand new spline bend try truncated in the 4.00 g every day (experience speed certainly members with potassium excretion >cuatro.00 grams a-day, thirteen events inside the 397 people). Research into potassium removal was basically destroyed getting 58 players (0.1%). Ergo, the fresh attempt included in the data into the substance consequence of death and you will big cardiovascular occurrences is 101,887 members with 3314 events. Committee B shows a limited-cubic-spline patch of the relationship between estimated potassium removal and you can death from people produce. Case price one of people Pomona free hookup website with potassium removal greater than 4.00 g per day is 4 situations within the 397 members. Panel C suggests a small-cubic-spline patch of your organization anywhere between estimated potassium excretion and you will significant cardio occurrences (defined as dying out of cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, otherwise cardiovascular system inability). Case speed certainly professionals with potassium excretion of greater than cuatro.00 grams per day try eleven incidents from inside the 397 members. non-Asian), alcohol consumption, body-bulk index, and you may position in terms of diabetes mellitus, history of cardiovascular events, and you can latest smoking. Dashed lines mean 95% confidence periods. The average level of potassium excretion (2.07 grams a day) was brand new site standard, expressed by the yellow line.
All of the plots was in fact modified to own age, intercourse, geographical area, academic level, origins (Far eastern against
As compared with an estimated potassium removal from lower than step 1.fifty g everyday, a top estimated excretion regarding potassium is associated with a decrease on the dangers of passing and you may aerobic incidents to your multivariable investigation ( Figure dos and Dining table step three ); so it relationship is mainly associated with a decrease in the chance off passing (Dining table S3 on Secondary Appendix). There is no proof of a discussion between projected potassium and salt excretion according to the top composite lead (P=0.55) (Table S4 about Supplementary Appendix).
Subgroup and you may Awareness Analyses
Blood pressure from the baseline (recognized as an earlier medical diagnosis off blood pressure otherwise hypertension > mm Hg) modified the organization between a top projected sodium removal and also the compound result (P=0.02 getting communication) (Desk S4 in the Additional Appendix). In the then study, there’s significantly increased risk noticed among people having baseline blood circulation pressure and you will an estimated salt removal of 6.00 to help you 6.99 g on a daily basis (opportunity ratio, step 1.14; 95% CI, step 1.00 to at least one.30) otherwise seven.00 g everyday or even more (possibility proportion, step 1.21; 95% CI, 1.05 to at least one.40), whereas you will find zero high relationship those types of in place of hypertension. There had been not one significant subgroup affairs (Tables S4 and you may S5 from the Second Appendix).
The exclusion of participants with cardiovascular disease (at baseline) or cancer (at baseline or follow-up) or those who had events in the first year of follow-up did not materially affect the findings from the sodium and potassium analyses. When participants with events in the first 2 years were excluded, the associations of a lower (<3.00 g per day) and higher (6.00 to 6.99 g per day) estimated sodium excretion with the primary outcome were significant ( Table 2 and Table 3 ). In a propensity-score–matched analysis that included 21,220 participants, a low estimated sodium excretion (<3.00 g per day), as compared with a moderate level (3.00 to 5.99 g per day), was associated with an increased risk of the composite outcome (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.46). In a similar analysis that included 40,618 participants, a high estimated sodium excretion (?6.00 g per day), as compared with a moderate level, was associated with an increased risk of the composite outcome (odds ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.34) (Table S6 in the Supplementary Appendix). The results of analyses adjusted for regression dilution bias are presented in Fig. S1 and S2 in the Supplementary Appendix. The results of the array-approach sensitivity analysis are provided in Table S7 in the Supplementary Appendix.